Articles

Dogs + Parasites

  • Ivermectin + pyrantel is a heartworm disease preventive that treats and controls hookworms and roundworms in dogs. Ivermectin + pyrantel is given by mouth as a flavored chew tablet. At prescribed doses, ivermectin + pyrantel is well-tolerated. Some dog breeds (e.g., collies, sheepdogs, and collie- or sheepdog-cross breeds) are more sensitive to ivermectin than others; your veterinarian will advise you on the safety of using this medication in your dog. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • Ivermectin + pyrantel + praziquantel is a combination of anti-parasitic medications used to prevent heartworms and control roundworm, hookworm, and tapeworm in dogs. It is given by mouth as a flavored chew tablet. At prescribed doses, this product is generally well-tolerated but some dogs may experience decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, or burping. Certain drugs may interact with those in this combination product; it is extremely important to let your veterinarian know about any medications or supplements that your pet is taking. If your dog has an adverse reaction to this product, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite transmitted by sandflies and is most commonly seen in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and South and Central America. It has been reported in some parts of the United States. Clinical signs include hard skin nodules, weakness, decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and more. Diagnosis is based on travel history, clinical signs, and diagnostic testing. The goal of treatment is to resolve clinical signs. Prognosis is guarded to grave depending on the severity of the disease.

  • Leishmaniasis in Dogs

    Es una enfermedad causada por un parásito unicelular que afecta a los mamíferos en muchas partes del mundo y que está extendida por todos los países de la cuenca del Mediterráneo. Hay que tener en cuenta que la enfermedad también puede afectar a las personas, pero no existe una transmisión directa del perro al hombre o viceversa. Se transmite por la picadura de un pequeño mosquito (Phlebotomus spp).

  • Internal Parasites in Dogs

    En general, hay dos tipos de parásitos internos que afectan al perro. En primer lugar están los nematodos o gusanos redondos, de los cuales Toxocara canis (el gusano redondo intestinal más común) y Diarofilaria immitis (el gusano cardiaco) son los principales ejemplos. En segundo lugar tenemos los cestodos o gusanos planos, de los cuales Dipylidium caninum y las especies Taenia y Echinococcus son ejemplos importantes.

  • Lung flukes in North America are parasites called Paragonimus kellicotti that infect the lungs of dogs after they have eaten an infected crayfish or rodents that have eaten infected crayfish. Eggs are then released by the parasite into the dog’s sputum to be coughed out or swallowed and released in the feces to continue the life cycle. Lung flukes can be found anywhere in North America but more commonly around the Mississippi River and Great Lakes. Infected dogs can be symptom-free or may develop cough with sometimes bloody mucus, pneumonia, pneumothorax, lethargy and weakness. Diagnosis can include locating eggs of the parasite from feces or mucus from the lungs. X-rays can also reveal cysts in the lungs caused by the parasite. Treatment requires one of 2 commonly used anti-parasitic medications: Praziquantel or Fenbendazole. Although zoonotic, these parasites won’t transmit directly from dogs to humans.

  • There are many species of lungworm that can cause respiratory problems in dogs. Infection is acquired through either: ingestion of an intermediate host such as snails or slugs, ingestion of animals that have been infected by eating these animals or depending on the species, from an infected dog by contact with saliva, nasal discharge, or contaminated food and water bowls. Lungworms can be found throughout North America and the world with certain species seen in certain areas. Clincal signs can range from asymptomatic to tachypnea, coughing, sneezing, wheezing, respiratory distress or exercise intolerance. The degree of clinical signs is usually proportional to the strength of the dog’s immune system. Diagnosis involves history, physical exam, x-rays and organism identification through either baermann fecal examination or BAL/bronchoscopy. Treatment involves use of specific antiparasitic drugs for various lengths of time depending on type and severity of infection. Prognosis is good but re-infection can occur.

  • The bacterium that causes Lyme disease can be transmitted to dogs through the bite of an infected tick, most commonly the deer tick (black-legged tick), which is found in the midwestern and eastern United States and throughout Canada. The disease typically causes pain and swelling in the affected dog's joints along with decreased appetite and fever. The kidneys are sometimes affected, in which case the disease is often fatal. Diagnostic testing, treatment, and ways to prevent Lyme disease in your dog, including instructions for tick removal, are explained in this handout.

  • Metronidazole is given by mouth or injection and is used off-label to treat certain anaerobic bacterial and protozoal infections and gastrointestinal conditions in dogs, cats, and other animals. Give as directed. Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, regurgitation, decreased appetite, tiredness, and drooling. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, are debilitated, or are pregnant or nursing. If a negative reaction occurs, contact your veterinarian.

  • Milbemycin oxime + afoxolaner is a heartworm disease preventive that also treats certain internal parasites and controls fleas and ticks in dogs. It is also used off-label to treat mite infestations in dogs. This combination drug is given by mouth as a flavored chew tablet. Certain dog breeds are more sensitive to milbemycin oxime than others; your veterinarian will advise you on the safety of milbemycin oxime use in your dog. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.